S have been induced (see Table S1 inside the supplemental material) when
S were induced (see Table S1 inside the supplemental material) although 194 genes or intergenic regions were repressed (see Table S3) during development in 2 M NaCl when compared with development in the absence of tension. S. aureus COL numbers are shown for many of those loci unless otherwise noted. When the transcriptional profile of cells grown in two M NaCl was in comparison to that of cells grown inside the absence of this tension, one of the most upregulated locus was the kdpFABC operon, using a selection of 35.1- to 102.4-fold increases amongst the kdp genes. This operon is predicted to encode an ATP-driven, high-affinity K transport program referred to as Kdp. Kdp systems have been implicated in osmotolerance in E. coli. Transcription of kdp operons is strongly induced by osmotic strain and/or K limitation in lots of bacterial species (191), and kdp operon expression is induced by the twocomponent technique KdpDE in E. coli and Leptospira interrogans (224). We observed that the kdpDE operon was also significantly induced in S. aureus cells grown in the presence of two M NaCl, by 21.4- and eight.7-fold for kdpD and kdpE, respectively. This suggested that KdpDE acts to activate kdpFABC expression in S. aureus though there had been an earlier report towards the contrary (25). Added loci that encode proteins with diverse or unknown functions have been induced more than 10-fold by growth in 2 M NaCl. The cap5 operon, which had been reported to become regulated by KdpDE (25, 26), was amongst them. This locus encodes the biosynthetic enzymes for production with the capsule (serotype 5), a virulence element that aids shield S. aureus from phagocytosis (27). Other very induced loci which might be involved in central metabolism could possibly be contributing to reorientation of these significant pathways to support biosynthesis from the capsule, which could constitute a major carbon sink. Such loci involve these that encode tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins (e.g., the gltA, suc, and sdh genes), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydroxyacetone kinase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. One particular or far more represen-mbio.asm.orgJuly/August 2013 Volume four Challenge 4 e00407-Roles of S. aureus K Importers during Growth in High [NaCl]tative genes from 4 distinctive phosphotransferase program (PTSs), which are involved in sugar uptake, were also induced at least 2-fold and could contribute substrates for central metabolic pathways. Loci identified with items involved in central metabolism were also TIP60 Molecular Weight related to amino acid transport, biosynthesis, and degradation, which could contribute to compatible-solute uptake and production and/or energy generation below a stressful situation. One of the most upregulated genes during development in a higher NaCl concentration was rocD, a element of an alternative pathway for proline biosynthesis by arginine conversion (28), which PKCγ Storage & Stability exhibited 14.4-fold induction by two M NaCl. The genes rocA and rocF were also upregulated, suggesting that this option pathway, which has been implicated in osmotolerance in B. subtilis (29), facilitates proline accumulation in response to osmotic stress in S. aureus. Further loci that are candidates for support of accumulation of amino acids or chemically related compatible solutes and that had been induced by growth in two M NaCl are indicated in Table S1 in the supplemental material. We also noted 3 other genes that had been substantially upregulated, a single of which had been found earlier to be induced by NaCl. This was the sceD gene.