Ion by T cells (Figures 5C,D; Figure S5 in Supplementary
Ion by T cells (Figures 5C,D; Figure S5 in Supplementary Material).ALLOGENEIC AND AUTOLOGOUS V2 T CELLS EQUALLY ACTIVATE DC AND B HIV-2 web CELLSWhile the flow cytometric cytokine assay revealed the percentage of cells expressing cytokines, we wanted to quantify the levels of cytokine production in the co-cultures. Immediately after 24 h co-culture of V2 T cells and DC or B cells, supernatants were analyzed for levels of IFN-, TNF-, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 by ELISA. Since the cellular source on the cytokines developed can’t be identified, we also examined cytokine production by V2 T cells alone. We identified that V2-DC co-cultures produced IFN- (Figure 3A), TNF- (not shown), and IL-6 (Figure S3A in Supplementary Material) but not IL-4 (Figure 3C), IL-10, or IL-12 (Figure S3A in Supplementary Material) following 24 h. In contrast, V2-B cell cocultures produced TNF- and IL-6 but didn’t augment IFN- (Figure 3B), IL-4 (Figure 3D), IL-10, or IL-12 (Figure S3B in Supplementary Material) production compared with V2 T cells cultured alone. IFN- production by HMB-PP-activated V2 TThe experiments described above indicate that V2 T cells can differentially induce MHC and co-stimulatory molecule expression, cytokine production, and T cell allostimulation by allogeneic DC and B cells. We also investigated when the identical outcomes could possibly be observed when V2 T cells had been cultured with autologous DC or B cells. Figure S4 in Supplementary Material shows that V2 T cells could equally induce CD86 expression (Figure S4A in Supplementary Material) and IL-12 secretion (Figure S4B in Supplementary Material) by autologous and allogeneic DC, and CD86 expression (Figure S4C in Supplementary Material) and IL-4 secretion (Figure S4D in Supplementary Material) by autologous and allogeneic B cells. Therefore it appears that allogeneic V2 T cells could be substituted for autologous V2 cells as adjuvants for DC or B cells.DISCUSSIONV9V2 T cells exhibit a myriad of effector functions in innate and adaptive immunity. They will kill infected, tumor, and stressedFrontiers in Immunology | T Cell BiologyDecember 2014 | Volume 5 | Article 650 |Petrasca and DohertyV2 T cells induce DC and B cell differentiationFIGURE 2 | V2 T cells induce distinct cytokine profiles by DC and B cells. DC or B cells had been co-cultured with HMB-PP-expanded human V2 T cells within the absence or presence of HMB-PP (denoted H) for 24 h. The cultures had been then treated with monensin for any further 16 h and stained for cell surface expression of CD11c or CD19 and CD3 and V2 and intracellular expression of IFN- or IL and analyzed by flow cytometry. (A,B) Representative flow -4 cytometric dot plots showing IFN- and IL-4 expression by gated CD11c cells (DC) and CD19 cells (BC), respectively. (C,D) Left and center JNK3 review panels show imply ( EM) percentages of (C) DC (n = ten) and (D) BC (n = 10) that expressIFN- and IL respectively. Ideal panels show imply ( EM) percentages of -4, (C) DC and (D) BC expressing IFN- and IL respectively, right after co-culturing -4, them with V2 T cells inside the presence of HMB-PP inside the absence (manage) or presence of blocking mAbs distinct for CD86, CD40L, TNF-, IFN- IFN-R, IL IL -4 -4R or using the DC (n = 5), or BC (n = three) separated from V2 T cells using transwell inserts. p 0.05 utilizing a paired t -test, in comparison with DC or BC alone (left panels) or compared to BC manage (correct panels) and unpaired t -test in comparison to DC handle (appropriate panels) except exactly where indicated by horizontal lines.frontiersin.orgDecember 2014 | Volume 5 |.